The Domains of Professional Practice : The Danielson Framework
Danielson’s Framework for Teaching
The Danielson Framework for Teaching is an educational framework designed to evaluate and improve teaching practices. It was developed by Charlotte Danielson, an educational consultant and former teacher, and it has been widely used in the field of education for teacher evaluation, professional development, and self-reflection.
Danielson’s framework for teaching identifies aspects of a teacher’s responsibilities that empirical studies have demonstrated as promoting improved student learning.
Because teaching is an extremely complex activity, this framework is useful in laying out the various areas of competence in which professional teachers need to develop expertise.
Danielson divides the complex activity of teaching into twenty-two components clustered into four domains of teaching responsibility:
(1) planning and preparation, (2) the classroom environment, (3) instruction, and (4) professional responsibilities. These domains and their components are outlined in a following table. A brief review of each of these domains will provide a road map of the skills and competencies new teachers need to develop.
The model focuses upon the complex activity of teaching as defined by the four domains of teaching responsibility:
1. Planning and preparation
2. Classroom environment
4. Professional responsibilities
* Domains 1 and 4 cover aspects of the teaching profession that occur outside the classroom, while Domains 2 and 3 address aspects that are directly observable in classroom teaching.
It's worth noting that the framework may be adapted or modified by different educational institutions based on their specific needs and goals.
Myungja Anna Koh